Take the Quiz! – How Inclusive is Your Fitness Facility?

Now is the perfect time for gym and studio owners to profit by appealing to one of the biggest, largely untapped markets in the fitness industry – individuals with disabilities.  Many fitness facilities, however, are not equipped to meet the needs of the disability community.

Are you curious if your facility makes the grade for inclusion and accessibility?  You can find out by taking our quick quiz.  This quiz will help you gauge where your fitness facility currently stands in its level of accessibility, as well as the key areas for improvement.

At the end of the quiz, you will have the option to get a FREE copy of The Ultimate Guide to Making Your Fitness Facility More Inclusive.  This guide offers loads of tips to make your facility more inclusive as well as a handy 1-page checklist that you can use to assess your facility’s accessibility and inclusivity and identify areas for improvement.

Just click the button below to take the quiz now!

Button - Take the Quiz

Webinar Q&A – Getting Fit with a Disability: How to Advocate for Yourself at the Gym

Thank you to everyone that joined us on February 28, 2018 for the webinar Getting Fit with a Disability:  How to Advocate for Yourself at the Gym.  In the webinar, participants learned how to create a successful self-advocacy plan, effectively communicate with health and fitness professionals, and develop creative solutions that are a win-win for everyone.

If you weren’t able to join us for the live presentation, you can watch the webinar at any time.  Just click the button below to view a recording of the live webinar.

View Webinar Button - View a recording of the live webinar

Also, I want to share answers to the questions we received during and after the webinar.


Q:  Is the approach I take to self-advocacy going to be different if I am just evaluating a new gym that if I am already a member under contract with a gym?

A:  [Jennifer Hobbs] If you are evaluating a gym, you are in complete control. If you feel that you are not being heard or that the organization is not willing to accommodate you, you can choose not to join and find another facility. If you are interested in learning more about what look for when you are searching for a fitness facility, I encourage you to go to our website and watch our webinar How to Choose Your Gym: 5 Questions You NEED to Ask When You Have a Disability. You will get some great tips on how to plan your gym search as well as identify “red flags” to look for when touring a gym.

If you already belong to a gym, and specifically if you are in a contract, you don’t have the flexibility to just leave. Therefore, self-advocacy becomes more important. Remember, you have the same right to fully participate as any other member of the gym. That is when developing a more formal self-advocacy plan, like the one we discussed today, becomes more important.

Q:  If I don’t get the results that I need from my self-advocacy efforts, what do I do next?

A: [Jennifer Hobbs]  If you do not get the results that you expect, you have several options.

  1. You may want to investigate more official channels.  This may include filing a formal compliant in writing to the organization’s management. You may also want to enlist the support of a disability advocacy organization to pursue a more formal advocacy process.
  2. If you feel that your legal rights are violated, contact an attorney and consider filing a legal action.
  3. Reassess your strategy and goals. Perhaps take another approach or pursue another issue that is easier to resolve.
  4. End your relationship with the facility. If you are under contract, determine the terms of the contract and terminate your membership when the contract expires.
  5. Finally, you may choose to accept the situation, at least for now,  You may decide that continuing to pursue the issue is not worth your time and effort right now.

What are your questions and comments?  Let’s continue the conversation – share your thoughts in the Comments section.

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

Free Webinar – Getting Fit with a Disability: How to Advocate for Yourself at the Gym

One of the best ways to get active is by joining a gym or fitness facility. However, navigating the gym can be challenging when you have a disability. Fortunately, you can overcome these barriers and enjoy safe and effective workouts at the gym. The key is successfully advocating for yourself and knowing how to ask for what you need.

What is Self-Advocacy?

Self-advocacy is taking action by speaking up and asking for what you need.  Successful self-advocacy involves knowing your rights, understanding your needs, and effectively communicating those needs to others.

Why is it Important?

If you have a disability, self-advocacy can be a critical skill if you choose to exercise at a gym or fitness facility.  Many facilities are not designed with the needs of individuals with disabilities in mind.  Also, many health and fitness professionals are not aware of the needs of individuals with disabilities in these settings.  Therefore, you need become your own best advocate by taking action to ensure that your needs are met.

Self-advocacy helps you:

  • Get what you need (e.g. information, equipment, resources, instruction) to exercise safely and effectively.
  • Make sure your rights are respected.
  • Develop assertiveness and self-determination.
  • Learn to say no without guilt.
  • Express disagreement while respecting the needs of others.

How Do I Advocate for Myself?

The thought of having to speak up for your own interests can be scary.  Fortunately, self-advocacy doesn’t have to be a daunting task.  It is a learned skill that you can master through proper planning and practice.  The key to success is having a solid strategy that gives you the confidence you need take action.

If you are interested in learning how to become your own best advocate at the gym, I invite you to join me FREE 30-minute webinar.  In this webinar, you will learn:

  • A simple 3-step plan for successful self-advocacy in health and fitness settings.
  • Tips for effectively communicating with health and fitness professionals.
  • Problem-solving strategies for developing creative solutions that are a win-win for everyone!

Here is everything you need to know to join me for this exciting event!

Event Details

Webinar: Getting Fit with a Disability:  How to Advocate for Yourself at the Gym 
Date:  Wednesday, February 28, 2018
Time:  7:00 – 7:30 pm EST
Duration:  30 minutes
Presented By:  Jennifer Hobbs, MS, MBA
President & Founder, IncluFit

Can’t attend the live event? No problem! A recording will be made available to all registered attendees after the live event concludes. We’ll deliver it directly to your inbox for easy access and viewing.

I look forward to seeing you on February 28th!

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

Inclusive Fitness: Why It Matters to Your Health and Fitness Business

Have you heard of inclusive fitness?

Inclusive fitness is a newly emerging facet of the health and fitness industry, yet, unfortunately, most business owners and managers don’t understand the overall impact that this could have on the growth and longevity of their business. 

Not only are inclusive health and fitness businesses tapping into this market segment’s spending power, but they are also gaining increased trust and interest from all consumers—those with disabilities and those without.

Ultimately, inclusive fitness is not just about getting people into your facility, but about creating a space and series of programs where all people are welcome and able to participate. Living a healthy and active life should be possible for everyone!

Are you ready to establish yourself as an industry leader? Check this out…

Inclusive Fitness - Why it Matters [Infographic]

 

Webinar Q&A – New Year, New You: Tips for Getting Fit with a Disability

Thank you to everyone that joined us on January 3, 2018 for the webinar New Year, New You:  Tips for Getting Fit with a Disability.  Throughout the month of December 2017, we asked the IncluFit online community to answer the question “What is the #1 barrier individuals with disabilities face in getting fit?”.  We received tons of great responses!  Here is a sample…

  • “Thinking they can’t do it.”
  • “Courage to do it!!”
  • “Motivation.”
  • “No help.”
  • “Lack of accessible places and understanding, inclusive-minded staff.”
  • “Assumption you will hurt yourself.”

…and many, many more!

It was difficult, but we compiled your responses and determined the top 3 barriers faced by individuals with disabilities in getting fit.  In the webinar, we discussed each of these barriers and identified strategies for overcoming those barriers in the new year.

If you weren’t able to join us for the live presentation, you can watch the webinar at any time.  Just click the button below to view a recording of the live webinar.

View Webinar Button - View a recording of the live webinar

Also, we had some great questions during the Q&A that I wanted to share with everyone.  Here is a recap of the Q&A session.


Q:  You talked a lot about advocating for yourself at the gym and asking for what you need, but how do I know if what I’m asking for is reasonable?

A:  [Jennifer Hobbs] That’s a very good question. First, I want to start by saying advocating for yourself can be incredibly challenging especially if you’re someone who doesn’t like to make waves or is afraid of asking for what you need. So, that can be very challenging in and of itself, just to get up the courage to ask for what you need.  Then having the fear of “Is what I’m asking for reasonable or are my expectations skewed? Am I asking for something that’s really not reasonable?” Now, that’s going to depend on what you’re asking for, in what situation you’re in, but I am definitely of the opinion – ask for what you need! However, be willing to have an open conversation with the people. For example, if you’re in the gym and there’s a piece of equipment that would really benefit you that the facility doesn’t have, approach the manager. Have a conversation, but be willing to have a good back and forth. Educate them on why it is beneficial. Help them understand the benefits that it will bring to you and, not just you, but their other clients as well. But, expect that it might not be something that they could do right away. So, always ask. Don’t expect immediate results, but you can, at a minimum, try to work out a plan to see if maybe they could do that in the future. Maybe there’s another option that they could implement right now. So, in my opinion, no request is unreasonable but the important thing is the conversation that you have that you have afterwards.

Q:  How can I tell the difference between pain and just discomfort associated with exercise?

A:  [Jennifer Hobbs]  That’s a tough one. That can be a really challenging one, especially if you live your life with chronic pain. It can be very hard to distinguish what is pain from an injury or condition and what is just general discomfort from using your muscles in a different way or being physically active. In general, anything that causes a sharp, acute, sudden pain that makes you wince or makes you immediately feel like you have to stop, that’s probably an indicator that you should stop. That is, something is exacerbating your injury or condition or potentially causing a new injury. Stop, assess, take a break, come back. The sensations associated with physical activity and exercise feel something like a warmth or a kind of a muscle burn or kind of a gradual buildup of fatigue. That’s indicative of a normal response of your body to exercise, particularly exercise that it may not be used to. So, pain associated with injury is usually more sudden, acute, sharp, extremely painful. Pain associated, pain or discomfort, I don’t want to say pain, but discomfort associated with physical activity is generally a little more gradual, not as sharp, and develops over time. But the best way to really determine that is to set small goals and work up slowly. The more slowly that you work up, adding in exercises to your routine, adding intensity and time you’re going to start to develop the sense of what is pain and what is just regular exercise discomfort.


What are your questions and comments?  Let’s continue the conversation – share your thoughts in the Comments section.

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

Free Webinar – New Year, New You: Tips for Getting Fit with a Disability

The new year is quickly approaching which means it’s the perfect time to start thinking about setting your fitness goals for 2018!

Getting more exercise is one of the most common new year’s resolutions, and for good reason! Exercise is one of the best ways to improve both mental and physical health.

Although we all know that exercise is good for us, getting fit and staying active is easier said than done. Maintaining a regular exercise program can be particularly challenging for individuals with disabilities.  Research shows that 47% of adults with a disability get no physical activity.  

Fortunately, you don’t need to let your disability stop you from being active. I invite you to join me for a FREE 30-minute webinar, where I will show you how to overcome the challenges of exercising with a disability and get fit in 2018. 

Here is everything you need to know to join me for this exciting event!

Event Details

Webinar: New Year, New You: Tips for Getting Fit with a Disability
Date:  Wednesday, January 3, 2018
Time:  1:00 – 1:30 pm EST
Duration:  30 minutes
Presented By:  Jennifer Hobbs, MS, MBA
President & Founder, IncluFit

In this webinar, you will learn:

  • The top 3 barriers to getting fit faced by individuals with disabilities.
  • Strategies for identifying and overcoming these barriers.
  • Practical tips to help you stay on track and make 2018 your healthiest year ever!

Can’t attend the live event? No problem! A recording will be made available to all registered attendees after the live event concludes. We’ll deliver it directly to your inbox for easy access and viewing.

I hope to see you on January 3rd!

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

Webinar Q&A – How to Choose Your Gym: 5 Questions You NEED to Ask When You Have a Disability

Thank you to everyone that joined us on November 15, 2017 for the webinar How to Choose Your Gym: 5 Questions You NEED to Ask When You Have a Disability.  Attendees came away with valuable tips on how to take the stress out of finding the right gym when you have a disability.

If you weren’t able to join us on the 15th – no problem!  You can watch the webinar at any time.  Just click the button below to view a recording of the live webinar.

View Webinar Button - View a recording of the live webinar

Also, we had some great questions during the Q&A that I wanted to share with everyone.  Here is a recap of the Q&A session.


Q:  I have already signed a contract with a gym, and I do like it, but now that I’ve taken this webinar I am realizing that there are some things that should have been red flags. I’ve always just accepted these limitations in the place meeting my needs, but now that I know better what can I do to address the concerns at my current gym?  In other words, how do I advocate for my needs in a gym that I already belong to?

A:  [Jennifer Hobbs]  That’s a great question.  So, I think you’re right, there’s one thing about having the information and knowing the questions to ask and actually being able to advocate for yourself in the gym.  As I had actually just touched on, don’t be afraid to ask questions and if you’re not getting the responses you want one thing I would say first take a look at who are you talking to.  Maybe you’re not talking to the right person.  Maybe you need to talk to a manager.  If you’re still not getting the information or getting the response that you want, I always recommend taking an approach of educating the staff.  Give them your thoughts. Tell them a little bit about inclusive fitness, how they might be able to improve their accessibility and inclusion at their facilities.  If you’d like, volunteer to help them and be your own advocate to help them get that knowledge.

Q:  I can’t seem to find a gym in my area that’s really inclusive. Am I really just looking for a needle in a haystack?

A:  [Jennifer Hobbs]  It can probably feel like that sometimes.  What I have found is a lot of it does depend on where you are. I think here in the United States, what I’d like to term “the inclusion revolution” in the health and fitness industry, is just starting to build momentum.  Inclusion and accessibility is not something that most gyms have high on
their priority list.  I think that certain places, like Great Britain and Australia, have made a lot of progress and are way ahead of the United States in terms of offering things like training to fitness professionals and raising awareness about the importance of inclusive
fitness. So, I can see where you’d think it would kind of be a needle in the haystack and that’s really where the advocacy has to come in.  More than likely, if you are in the United States, if you’re going to a gym, that’s probably not going to be something that is in the forefront of their business model. So, as long as they are willing to work with you, then advocate for yourself and you can probably make a difference. Hopefully, with more training like this and starting to get the word out more about the inclusive fitness movement here in the United States, we are going to start to see a change.  We’re going to see more facilities being more accessible and being more inclusive of individuals with disabilities.


What are your questions and comments?  Let’s continue the conversation – share your thoughts in the Comments section.

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

Free Webinar – How to Choose Your Gym: 5 Questions You NEED to Ask When You Have a Disability

It is no secret that most of us struggle to maintain a regular exercise program.  This can be particularly challenging when you have a disability.  Work, school, health issues, and just life in general can make it difficult to carve out even a few hours a week to spend on our own wellbeing.  So how can you get motivated to move more and make exercise a part of your normal routine – join a gym!

A recent study Iowa State University showed that gym members logged a whopping 484 minutes of exercise on average per week compared to only 137 minutes per week for non-members.  Additionally, the odds of meeting weekly physical activity guidelines were 14 times higher for gym members than for non-gym members.  As if that wasn’t enough evidence of the value of a gym membership, researchers also found that gym members were less likely to be obese, had lower blood pressure, higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, and smaller waist circumferences than non-members.

Sounds great!  Sign me up, right?  Unfortunately, the thought of finding the right gym and committing to signing on that dotted line can easily become overwhelming, especially when you have a disability.

Good news!  Choosing a gym doesn’t have to be a stressful experience.  I invite you to join me for a FREE 30-minute webinar, where I will to show you how you can take the anxiety out of choosing a gym when you have a disability.  All it takes is a little planning ahead and asking a few simple questions to help you find your perfect fit.

Here is everything you need to know to join me for this exciting event!

Event Details

Webinar:  How to Choose Your Gym: 5 Questions You NEED to Ask When You Have a Disability
Date:  Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Time:  2:00 – 2:30 pm EST
Duration:  30 minutes
Presented By:  Jennifer Hobbs, MS, MBA,
President & Founder, IncluFit

In this webinar, you will learn:

  • Tips on how to plan ahead to make the most of your gym search.
  • “Red flags” to watch for when touring a gym.
  • The top 5 questions to ask gym staff during the first visit.

I hope to see you on November 15th!

Jennifer's Signature Jennifer Hobbs

SCI Workout Consideration #6 – Muscles & Joints

Of course, all physical activity engages the muscles and joints. Everyone that exercises regularly eventually experiences some muscle soreness or joint pain or stiffness. Usually, these conditions are temporary and are easily treatable with a little rest and proper self-care; however, individuals with SCI need to be particularly aware of several conditions affecting muscles and joints that can be extremely painful and potentially debilitating.

Spasticity 

Spasticity is due to increased tone in a muscle.

What Issues Are Posed With SCI? 

A spinal cord injury disrupts communication between the brain and the part of the nervous system responsible for muscle control below the level of injury. This disconnect can result in a common condition that individuals with SCI need to consider when exercising – spasticity.

Spasticity typically occurs in the muscles below the site of injury and can make it challenging to exercise since it can be very painful. It can lead to abnormal posture, cause deformities in the bones and joints, and can be further exacerbated by exercise.

Symptoms 

Symptoms of spasticity include:

  • High muscle tone
  • Hyperactive stretch reflexes
  • Spasms: Quick and/or sustained involuntary muscle contractions
  • Clonus: A series of fast involuntary contractions
  • Contractures: A permanent contraction of the muscle and tendon due to severe lasting stiffness and spasms

Steps to Reduce Risk When Exercising

There are several steps that you can take to reduce spasticity and make exercise safer and more comfortable.

If you experience spasticity, try:

  • Regular stretching several times per day. This is the best way to reduce spasticity.
  • Aim to hold stretches for 10-30 seconds.
  • Use a partner to assist you in stretching of the non-functioning muscle.
  • If you take medication to control spasticity, try to coordinate the time you take the medication and the time of your exercise session to minimize spasticity during your workout.

To avoid further complications from spasticity:

  • Do not bounce or perform ballistic stretching.
  • Do not exercise when you are experiencing severe spasticity.  Work with your doctor or therapist to reduce spasticity before returning to exercise.
  • Do not exercise when you have an infection. Urinary tract and other infections can increase the risk of spasticity,
  • Do not exercise in cold temperatures, since cold air can increase spasticity.

Overuse Injuries

Individuals with SCI (particularly those that use a manual wheelchair) are susceptible to several overuse injuries. The repetitive motion of pushing a wheelchair puts significant stress on the muscles and joints of the upper body, namely the wrists and shoulders.  

Some of the most common overuse injuries experienced within the SCI community are carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff strain, and shoulder impingement.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 

Carpal tunnel syndrome results from chronic pressure on the wrist that causes swelling.  The swelling compresses the nerve that runs through the wrist to the hand, the medial nerve, causing pain and weakness.

What Issues Are Posed With SCI? 

Manual wheelchair users are very susceptible to carpal tunnel syndrome because the act of the hand repeatedly gripping and pushing the wheels places a significant amount of force on the hands and wrists.  Studies show that as many as 90% of long-term manual wheelchair users suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome.

Symptoms 

Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome affect the hand and wrist and may include:

  • Pain
  • Tingling
  • Numbness
  • Weakness

Steps to Reduce Risk When Exercising 

Like most overuse injuries, the best way to keep carpal tunnel syndrome from affecting your ability to exercise is through prevention.

Some steps you can take to reduce your risk include:

  • Wearing padded gloves.
  • Using good body mechanics when pushing your wheelchair.
  • Making sure your wheelchair is fitted properly and equipment is well maintained.
  • Using padding push rims to reduce pressure on the hands
  • Applying ice to the wrists for 20 minutes at the end of each day to reduce any swelling.
  • Incorporating a wrist flexibility and strengthening program into your routine.  

Rotator Cuff Strain & Shoulder Impingement 

The ball-and-socket structure of the shoulder joint makes it extremely mobile but also very vulnerable to possible injuries. For manual wheelchair users, the shoulder joint is the primary joint used during transfers and propulsion. This puts wheelchair users at particularly high risk for developing shoulder injuries.

Rotator cuff strain is most commonly caused by muscle imbalances in the shoulder.

The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons around the shoulder joint that are responsible for moving and stabilizing the shoulder joint. The motion of pushing a wheelchair causes certain muscles of the shoulder to be used more than others, leading to muscular imbalances. These imbalances can result in injury to the rotator cuff.

Additionally, individuals with SCI tend to have weak internal and external shoulder rotators.  This weakness can also contribute to rotator cuff strain.

Symptoms of a rotator cuff strain include pain and/or an aching sensation in the shoulder joint.

An image of a man using a wheelchair and holding a dumbbell.

Shoulder impingement is another common injury among wheelchair users because the biomechanics of pushing a wheelchair creates a significant amount of pressure on the shoulder joint. This pressure is 2.5 times higher for wheelchair users than for non-wheelchair users!

Also, long periods spent in a seated position require that wheelchair users frequently reach overhead to grasp objects and perform tasks. Once again, the biomechanics of this movement put considerable stress on the shoulder joint.

Steps to Reduce Risk When Exercising 

You can reduce your risk of developing shoulder injuries by taking the following preventative measures:

  • Always use good body mechanics when pushing your wheelchair.
  • Try to balance out the time pushing in your chair with other types of physical activity that use different movements and muscles.
  • Make sure your exercise routines are well balanced, including stretching, aerobic exercise, and strength training.
  • Incorporate strength training exercises to help reduce muscular imbalances in the shoulder. Be sure to include exercises to strengthen the shoulder’s internal and external rotators!

Conclusion

As you can see, being aware of a few common conditions associated with SCI that can impact exercise will help you take the necessary steps to minimize your risk so that you can exercise safely. Exercising with SCI doesn’t have to be intimidating or scary, and the benefits of exercise are well-worth the investment!

Looking for SCI-friendly exercise guides? Visit our website at inclufit.com to view our exercise videos, equipment, and training tips.

Further Reading 

NCHPAD – Overuse Injuries in Wheelchair Users

NCHPAD – Spinal Cord Injuries

Spasticity

SCI Workout Consideration #5 – Bone Loss

Having weak and brittle bones due to a loss of bone mass can be a significant risk factor for injury during exercise. In general, weak bones are:

  • More susceptible to fractures from forces generated on them during physical activity.  
  • More likely to break as a result of accidents during exercise, such as slipping and falling or injury from a piece of equipment.  Even minor accidents, such as twisting your leg can result in a broken bone.

What Issues Are Posed With SCI? 

Bone loss can impact anyone, however, individuals with SCI are affected at much higher rates than the general population. In fact, it is estimated that 80% of individuals with chronic SCI have bone loss significant enough to be diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis and decreases in bone density of 30% to 40% in the legs is typical after SCI.

Most of the bone loss occurs below the level of injury; therefore, individuals with quadriplegia experience the greatest overall bone loss. Individuals with paraplegia also experience significant bone loss in the lower extremities but maintain bone density in the upper body.

The primary reason for bone loss after SCI is due to the lack of mechanical stress on the bones below the level of injury. This is because every time we move, and even when we are standing still, our muscles are working to support us. When a muscle contracts, it places a mechanical stress on the bone it is attached to and the body responds to the stress by creating more bone. When the muscle can’t contract, the bone-building process ceases and bone mass is gradually decreased over time.

Other factors that contribute to the loss of bone mass in individuals with SCI include:

  • Hormonal changes
  • Changes in metabolism and blood pH
  • Poor blood flow to the limbs
  • Altered gas and nutrient exchange at the bone.

How to Reduce Risk When Exercising

You can significantly reduce your risk of fractures during exercise by always taking the following steps:

  • Exercise in a safe environment. Since accidents are a common cause of fractures, the best way to avoid them is through prevention. This means exercising in a safe environment.  
  • Make sure that your training environment is safe and free from obstacles that may cause a fall.
  • Learn safe transfer techniques to minimize the possibility of injury while transferring from your wheelchair to equipment and back again.
  • Use straps or other adaptive devices to make sure that your trunk is properly supported on equipment and ensure that you can maintain your balance throughout the exercise.
  • Take the time to properly position and secure your wheelchair prior to each exercise.
  • Use appropriate equipment. For example, if you have limited hand function, using cuff weights or weights with straps will allow you to safely perform exercises without the risk of dropping the weight on yourself.  
  • Avoid movements with a high fracture risk. Some movements put excessive stress on the bones, which can lead to fractures.  

To avoid fractures, always:

  • Perform all movements in a slow, controlled manner and always within your range of motion.
  • Avoid movements that put excessive stress on the bones.  Movements to avoid include:
    • Twisting (especially twisting with a weight or other load)
    • Extensive flexion or extension
    • Overstretching can put significant stress on the bones, causing fractures. When performing assisted stretches (i.e. stretches with a partner), make sure your partner avoids extreme tension.

Finally, remember to always check your body after each workout for any signs of fracture, including swelling, redness, and bruising.


Next Up…

#6 Muscle & Joint Issues

Further Reading 

Osteoporosis and Fractures in Persons with SCI:  What, Why, and How to Manage